Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the most common maternal mental health disorders, affecting an estimated 30% of women in their postpartum period. While the reasons for PPD remain uncertain, it has been suggested that genetic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors may play a role. In an effort to better understand the underlying causes of PPD, researchers conducted a review of related studies. This study focused on a variety of risk factors that can contribute to the development of PPD.
Some of the identified factors include low socioeconomic status, gestational diabetes, a negative birth experience, and lack of social support. The relationship between postpartum depression and these factors has been examined in a number of articles. However, more extensive studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between these factors and PPD.
Many studies suggest that a negative attitude toward pregnancy and childbirth can increase the risk of PPD. Additionally, women who suffer from abuse during pregnancy or during their first year of parenthood are more susceptible to depression. Therefore, a healthy relationship with a mother-in-law is an important factor in preventing PPD.
One of the largest factors that has been studied is the relationship between a woman’s marital status and her risk for PPD. Although this is one of the most studied factors, it is only a small component of the overall equation. Once a relationship is established, marital status becomes a less significant risk factor.
Other major factors include a negative obstetric history, multiple births, and gestational diabetes. Women who have had a cesarean section or an epidural during delivery have a higher risk of developing PPD. Finally, a low level of vitamin D is also associated with an increased risk of PPD.
Social factors are also important in the development of PPD. Studies have shown that women living in big cities have a higher incidence of PPD. Furthermore, women in big cities have a lower level of social support. They also have a more stressful environment and are more likely to develop a negative view of themselves.
The most commonly studied risk factor is the presence of a relationship with the baby’s biological father. A number of studies have found a correlation between a positive birth experience and a lower risk of developing PPD.
In addition to these factors, many studies have found that a family history of mental illness can increase the risk of PPD. This is especially true in families where there are at least two siblings who have a mental disorder. Also, a mother’s own depressive disorder may affect her ability to care for her child, which increases the risk of developing PPD.
Finally, some studies have found a correlation between a woman’s age and her risk of developing PPD. In one study, women under 25 years of age were at a threefold higher risk of developing PPD. Another study found a relationship between a woman’s psychiatric history and her risk of PPD. Several other studies have not shown a correlation between these two factors.